Cushman, Adolphus J.
Age: 22, credited to Lincoln, VT
Unit(s): 6th VT INF
Service: enl 10/8/61, m/i 10/15/61, Pvt, Co. A, 6th VT INF, m/o 10/28/64
See Legend for expansion of abbreviationsVITALS
Birth: 05/21/1834, Georgia, VT
Burial: Briggs Hill Cemetery, Bristol, VT
Marker/Plot: Not recorded
Gravestone researcher/photographer: Alan Lathrop
Findagrave Memorial #: 31222130
Alias?: None noted
Pension?: Yes, 6/2/1872
College?: Not Found
Veterans Home?: Not Found
(If there are state digraphs above, this soldier spent some time in a state or national soldiers' home in that state after the war)
Great Grandfather of Kenneth E. Hill, Jr., Vienna, VA
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Briggs Hill Cemetery, Bristol, VT
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Cushman, A. J. (doctor), Lincoln, was born in the town of Georgia, Franklin county, Vt.,. on May 21., 1843. His father, Francis Cushman, was a school teacher in Franklin county and also at the University of Vermont. In later life he engaged in the mercantile business. His wife was Amelia Brown, by whom he had a family of seven children, of whom A. J. is the third youngest. Dr. Cushman came to Lincoln, Vt., in 1859. He is a blacksmith by trade. He enlisted in Company A, Sixth Vermont Volunteers, infantry company, and served three years. The last two years he served in the hospital as steward. He was in the Sixth Corps, Army of the Potomac, and took part in over fifty engagements. He was wounded in the hip at the battle of Savage Station, and is now a pensioner. He studied medicine at spare times for several years, and more especially since 1875. He entered the medical department of the University of Vermont in 1881 and attended lectures. He now receives a large patronage. He has been married twice. His first wife was Amelia Hood, a daughter of E. P. Hood, of Bristol, Vt., and by her had one son, Arthur, now a student at Middlebury College. Amelia died in 1872 [sic, 1870 on gravestone]. He then married for his second wife Ella Stone, a daughter of Benjamin Stone, and by her has had a family of three children -- Winnifred, Vevion, and Dora.
Source: H. P. Smith, ed., History of Addison County Vermont, (D. Mason & Co., Syracuse NY, 1886), p. xv.
Contributed by John Burbank.
Word was received December 23 of the sudden death of Adolphus Cushman in Rutland. He was a veteran of the Civil War and a practicing physician in this town for many years. A few months ago he went to Rutland to reside with his daughter, Mrs. Joseph Barrett. Besides Mrs. Barrett, he is survived by a daughter, Mrs. B.J. Gove of Springfield and a son, Arthur J. of this town, besides several grandchildren. The remains were brought here Tuesday, December 25 and the funeral was held Tuesday, December 24 at the Methodist Church.
Source: Burlington Free Press, May 2, 1918
Courtesy of Tom Boudreau.
Adolphus J. Cushman's life story was in one sense the epitome of the American dream. He was the son of an immigrant who came to this country as a dirt farmer and rose to the level of beloved and respected doctor in his community. Through hard work and personal sacrifice, Adolphus was able to raise himself from poverty to comfortable middle class status. A. J. "Courchene" Cushman served his country honorably during its great Civil War where he first became interested in medicine while serving as a nurse in his regimental hospital. But his life experiences also brought a fair amount of tragic loss. Like the Biblical Job, Adolphus' patience, perseverance and faith was sorely tested in his life time. He was continually dogged by death to those whom he was most close to his entire adult life. First there was the war which brought plenty of loss of life to his days. Then he lost his first wife when she was quite young leaving him with two infant children to care for by himself. His second wife also died young of cancer after bearing five children to Adolphus. Of his seven children by two wives, four of them died by their teens, with one son surviving only nineteen days after birth. Adolphus bore these personal tragedies stoically and learned to cope with his loses to become a dedicated practitioner of the healing arts.
A. J. Cushman's date of birth was disputed by numerous sources. Even he seemed to have difficulty remembering his birthday. The suggested dates ranged from May 21, 1834 to 1841. His death certificate stated his date of birth was May 21, 1834. His place of birth was also a matter of contention. Most sources suggested Georgia, Vermont as his place of nativity. However, certain Ancestry.com family trees gave his birthplace as Chambly, Quebec, Canada. The Canadian location seemed to be the most likely location based on the fact that the first U.S. Federal Census record found for A. J.'s father, Francis, was for 1850 and that record placed the Cushman family, including twelve year old Adolphus, living in Hinesburgh, Chittenden, Vermont. A. J.'s father was known as Francis Cushman in the USA. In Canada, his name was Francois Xavier Courchene (1805-1864). His mother's name was Archange Brunelle (1807-1868). Both his parents were born in Canada and both were buried in Burlington, Vermont. From family tree records, it appeared that Francis and Archange brought their family to the United States to live between November 12, 1842 and July 24, 1847. These dates represent the birth dates of the last child born in Canada to the couple (Maie-Anne, Leocadie) and the first child born to them in the United States (Louisa J.). A. J. was the sixth of twelve children. He had three older brothers; Francis Xavier (1828-??), Joseph (1833-??) and Elijah L. (1833-1884). He had two older sisters as well; Marie-Anne Anastasie (1830-1898) and Ludger (1834-??). Following his own birth (circa 1836), there followed four more sisters and two additional brothers: Sarah (1837-1857); Marie-Anne Philomene (1838-??); Alfred J. (1840-1917); Octavius J. (1841-1916); Marie-Anne-Leocadie (1842-??); and Lousia J. (1847-1895). When Francis, A. J.'s father, first came to this country, he was a farmer. He soon found a job as a school teacher in Franklin County and a professor at the University of Vermont. Later in life, he became involved in the mercantile business 
Although born in Canada (circa 1834, 1836, 1837, 1839 or 1841), A. J. as he liked to be called, was a twelve year old resident of Hinesburg, Vermont according to Assistant Marshall Ira Shattuck census taker. His forty year old father farmed and his thirty-nine year old mother tended to the household. Living in the same home was his two seventeen year old brothers, Joseph and Elijah. Joseph was a "laborer" and Elijah was just "present". Rounding out the family was thirteen year old Sarah, twelve year old "Adolph", ten year old Alford (sic), eight year old Octavo (sic) and three year old Louisa. There was no mention of Francis Xavier, Marie-Anne Anastasie, Ludger, Marie-Anne Philomene or Marie-Anne Leocadia. All school-aged children, including Joseph and Elijah, attended public school during the past year. With the two older boys nearly full grown at home, Francis had no need of hired help on the farm. That meant the younger boys were not pressed into "laborers" and could enjoy the delights of being growing boys.
Within the next decade, that luxury would be quickly and violently snatched away. The sound of heavy guns at dawn on April 12, 1861 in South Carolina's Charleston Harbor were two far away to be instantly heard. But two days later the news of the noise they made reached the northern frontier towns of Bristol and Lincoln and every other hamlet in the State of Vermont. The report was loud and clear. Diplomacy had failed. The red line had been crossed. Now only the blood of America's young men could determine the future course of the North American continent's great experiment in national democracy. Flying lead and iron would now decide whose flag would fly over which capital city.
Part of the newly formed majority that would help to answer that question included A. J.'s older brother, Elijah. Two months after the first major test between the two contending armed forces of the North and the South at First Bull Run in July of 1861, civilian volunteer Elijah L. Cushman stood before Captain G. Parker in Bristol, Vermont, and pledged his life, liberty and happiness to the Union Army for the next three years. He was immediately added to the rolls of Company A, Sixth Regiment Vermont Infantry on September 30, 1861. The five feet eight inch twenty-four year old blacksmith with his dark complexion, black eyes and brown hair stated he was born in Georgia, Vermont (really in Canada!) Ten days later, on October 8, Adolphus J. Cushman stood before the same army recruiter in Montpelier, Vermont to also enlist in Company A of the Sixth Vermont. A. J. had, apparently, made a last minute decision to follow his brother into the service. He was lucky to be able to add his name to the same company in the same regiment as his brother had already signed up for. On October 15, 1861, the entire roster of volunteers in the Sixth met at Montpelier for the purpose of being accepted into the service of the United States Army. By the end of the day, Elijah and Adolphus were privates in Mr. Lincoln's army. Twenty-two year old Adolphus was two years younger than his brother, Elijah and three and one half inches shorter, standing only five feet four and one half inches tall. His eyes were brown rather than black, but both of the boys had brown hair. Adolphus listed his civilian occupation as "mechanic" -- a 19th century term for a carpenter.
It was not unusual in the Civil War for relatives and friends to join up at the same time in the same place and serve together in the same company and regiment. Fathers and sons did it; brothers did it; cousins did it; neighbors did it; townsmen did it; even men from the same county did it. What was unusual about this enlistment of these two men was that both almost from the very beginning of their military careers were assigned detached duty as male nurses in their Regimental Hospital. Both served nearly their entire tour of duty as male nurses and stewards at one time being posted in Hagerstown, Maryland in October, 1862. The only substantial difference in their service occurred when Elijah was promoted from "nurse" to "steward". The two brothers were even discharged on the same day (October 15, 1864) at Brattleboro, Vermont.
When the boys came marching home in the fall of 1864, they naturally returned to their former places in their community. Elijah went into agriculture and Adolphus took up blacksmithing. At least that was what he was doing for a living when he married for the first time in 1865. His bride was Amelia R. Hoag (1849-1870). The newlyweds were married in Lincoln on January 16, 1865. The groom was twenty-five and the bride was sixteen. Her father was a modest farmer in Lincoln named Enos P. Hoag (1816-1907). Her mother was Nancy F. Keyes (1813-1890) also from Lincoln. Amelia came from an unusually small family by 19th century standards. There was her mother and father, of course, and only one brother named Alonzo (1839-1858). There may have been a sister as well named Esther who was born in New Hampshire. Enos supplemented his farm income by being Lincoln's Postmaster from 1854-1857. In 1860, his farm land was valued at around $2,000. His personal belongings only amounted to about $400. Apparently by 1860, Alonzo, Enos' boy, had left the farm leaving only his father to work it. However, the household at this time had one thing in abundance -- women. There were three generations of them in the home at the same time: Nancy, the mother; Amelia, the daughter; and Esther, the grandmother. Poor Enos must have been overwhelmed with all of the female companionship around the house!
Adolphus was kind enough in 1865 to reduce that ratio by one third. Around the time of the 1870 Federal Census, Adolphus Cushman, now approaching middle age (34), was the owner and operator of a $5,000 farm of his own in Lincoln. He was prosperous enough to employ a full time farm hand named John Palmer, age twenty-eight. Two years after marrying Amelia Hoag, A. J. became a father for the first time. He had a boy and they named him Arthur Enos Cushman (1866-1951). He was born on November 18 in Lincoln. A. J. lost his father in 1864 and his mother in 1868. Both his parents were buried in Burlington, Vermont. A second child was delivered to the family in April of 1870. This time the child was a daughter whom A. J. and Amelia named Amelia M. Cushman (1870-1876). The family affectionately called her "Minnie". Minnie never got to know her mother. Amelia R. passed away a few months after she was born on July 9, 1870 from kidney disease. She was only twenty-three of -four. Her death left Adolphus with two very young children; a three year old and a three month old. He did not have the luxury of time for grieving. He needed a mother figure in the home for the benefit of his children.
Before 1871, he had found the woman he was looking for in the form of Ella M. Stone (1854-1904). She was considerably younger than A. J., but was healthy and strong. She married him and his two children on November 21, 1871 in Lincoln, sixteen months after Amelia's death. Ella was the daughter of Benjamin Birchard and Maranda Stone. Sometimes she was called Birchard and sometimes Stone in various public records. One source even called her "Boslow". Regardless of what name she was called, she became A. J.'s second wife and the step-mother to his two children by Amelia. He was thirty-eight and she was seventeen. The age difference between the groom and the bride and the short interval of time between Amelia's passing and the second wedding all point to a marriage of convenience and necessity rather than one of romance and love. Such marriages were not out of the ordinary and many were just as long-lasting and fulfilling as those that began with an elopement in the middle of the night. Adolphus was a "good catch" for any woman. He was well grounded and had fine prospects for the future. And Ella was young and energetic, more than a match for two aspiring young children.
Not long after the ceremonial toasts were over, the newlyweds began to have a family of their own. Daughter Winnifred was born about March/April 14, 1873. A. J. had been very busy with his farm responsibilities and, in his spare time, pursuing his interest in medicine that had begun with his military service. He seriously began to study medicine by 1875. Unfortunately, he was not able to apply his knowledge to save the life of one of his own family. In 1876, his first daughter by Amelia Hoag contracted diphtheria and died of it on the last day in January of that year. Eleven days earlier, on January 20, 1876 the family had celebrated the arrival of a new born daughter named Vivian. It must have been a very distressing time for the entire family. These very emotionally conflicting occurrences may have been the very impetus that pushed Adolphus into committing to a career change.
Five years after loosing Minnie, A. J. was enrolled full time in the medical department of the University of Vermont. Oddly enough, the 1880 Federal Census did not list A. J. as either a student or a physician but as a "carriage builder". His age was given as forty. Besides Ella, his wife, his son, Arthur E. and two daughters, Winnie and Vivian lived in the Lincoln household. That was about to change rapidly and, like the decade before, the 1880s were not to be all pleasant ones. Despite being designated as a carriage maker, A. J. managed to build up a large client base practicing medicine in Lincoln. He also found time in his busy schedule to broaden his own family base. Another daughter was born to A. J. and Ella on January 10, 1882. They named the baby Dora Eva Cushman. Dora's life was to be cut short in 1897 when she was fifteen. The circumstances surrounding her death were very melodramatic and humiliating for the Cushman family, especially the head of the household who was a well known and popular physician in Lincoln. Her death became a state-wide current events spectacle as well as a personal tragedy. Death seemed to dog Adolphus' heels. He lost a brother, Elijah, to consumption in 1884. That was soon followed by more joyful news in the form of the only son Ella would bare him. The male child was born February 1, 1885. He was named Adolphus A., "Dolphie" for short. The celebration of life was short, for the child died nineteen days after its birth on February 19, 1885 of "inflammation of bowels".
The 1890 Federal Census records were basically destroyed in a vault fire. Fortunately for Adolphus' story, the Federal Government that year conducted a special survey of veterans and their widows. This special count aimed mostly at Civil War veterans and their beneficiaries placed A. J. in Lincoln where he always had been since he was born. One nice aspect about these schedules was that it filled the gap in the information loop concerning the whereabouts of our Civil War veterans in the year 1890. Additionally, the special schedule verified the military service of these veterans. And thirdly, it often listed any disability the veteran suffered from that was, ostensibly, incurred while in the service. In A. J.'s case, it noted that he had lost the sight in one eye. This was the second time a public record had indicated he had an injury as a result of his enlistment in the military. The first mention was in his Compiled Service Records which stated he had received a gun shot would in the hip at Savage Station in 1862. Only once had these same records stated that he was in the hospital as a patient and that comment listed him as "sick". So, this note of the loss of his sight in one eye was something new and surprising. However, it, or the gunshot wound, may have helped explain why A. J. had been receiving an invalid pension since January 2, 1872. It may also have explained his renewed interest in medicine in the early 1870s and his career change in the early 1880s. Towards the end of the 1890s, Doctor Cushman's life once again was devastated by a personal and traumatic event. Not only did Doctor Cushman have to suffer the early loss of his fifteen year old daughter, Dora Eva, but he and the surviving members of the Cushman family had to endure a seven month long painful and very public murder trial brought against a male acquaintance of his deceased daughter who was charged in her murder.
It appeared that on or about August 14, 1897, twenty-six year old Smith Davis and fifteen year old Dora E. Cushman secretly met in a glade not far from the young girl's home in order for a certain "criminal act" to be performed upon the person of Dora. During the trial, it was shown that she and Mr. Davis had for some time prior to that date been intimate on a regular basis and that Dora was at the time in a "delicate condition". According to his own testimony, Davis claimed that Dora had asked him to procure for her certain instruments by which she could end their mutually embarrassing predicament. Davis related how he had purchased said instruments with the help of a retired dentist and when he and Dora rendezvoused in the glade near her home, she requested the implement from him which he reluctantly handed over to her. He then turned and walked away from her to light a cigar. He heard some noise behind him, turned just in time to see Dora fall to the ground. He went to her, found her dead. In a state of panic, he threw the instrument he assumed she had used on herself away into a nearby stream and covered the girl's face with her sunbonnet. He then fled the scene leaving the body untouched where it fell. When Dora failed to return home by dark that day, her family became concerned and started a search of the neighborhood for her. Her body was not found until 5 o'clock the next morning (Sunday morning) by her brother, Arthur E. Cushman who was a member of the search party looking for her. There were no signs of foul play on the body, just a slight bruise on the temple and a little blood on the grass and leaves around the body. Dora's body was carried to her father's house and the local authorities were contacted. An autopsy was considered necessary to determine the cause of death. A suspect was soon settled upon and sought out by local constables. But Davis had been seen leaving the area by train from New Haven Junction the same day Dora disappeared. He was traced and tracked down to his father's home in Montgomery, Vermont where he was arrested.
A key witness in the subsequent trial was Smith Davis' best friend -- one William Brittell. It was he who put the authorities on the trail of Davis as a suspect in Dora's death. From the very outset of the proceedings, both Davis and Brittell were portrayed in a negative light. They were characterized as rowdy, womanizing and hard drinking roustabout in town. This portrayal alone lent the whole case an aura of immoral and scandalous behavior on the part of all involved parties, including the fifteen year old victim whose reputation was not immune to bawdy accusations. Before the trial ended, even Dora's sister, Vivian, had her character and reputation smeared. Testimony caught her in the web and conspiracy of adultery with a male acquaintance of hers who happened to also be a person of interest in the murder of Dora. The hearing for Davis on the charge of murder did not begin until September of 1897. By then, the number of men arrested for having played some part in her death had risen to five: Smith G. Davis, primary suspect; William Brittell, accomplice; Doctors H.S. Jocelyn (retired dentist in Lincoln) and Professor Norman Henry (a traveling physician), accessories for providing potions and instrument for performing "criminal acts"; and Herbert Pollard (Vivian's friend) accessory for providing oil of cedar and instructions on dosing to produce an abortion.
Right after Dora's body had been found the morning after her death, two doctors performed a thorough autopsy of the body. They conducted the usual eighteen standard examinations to determine the cause of death. From information provided by Davis in his "confession" the assumption was that she died because she attempted to use the speculum (the instrument Davis had obtained for her) on herself in order to abort the fetus. However, their post-mortem examination found no physical evidence that any such procedure had been performed on the deceased in order to abort the three month old fetus. With no tangible evidence that the instrument of destruction had caused Dora's death, a new theory had to be found. William Brittell, Davis' chum, provided the needed alternative explanation when he told the authorities during questioning that Davis told him that he had given Dora a mixture of oil of cedar and brandy that had been given to him by Pollard to produce the answer to Dora's unpleasant condition. To determine if poison had killed Dora, the stomach and other organs were sent to Dartmouth College for analysis. Although it could be determined what it was she had eaten just prior to her death, no evidence of poison was found in the stomach's contents or the linings of the other organs. All three examining doctors where at a loss as to the cause of Dora's death. The best determination they could offer was that she died of "nervous prostration" or shock.
Months of character assassinating testimony by massive numbers of witnesses in the prosecution of this case subjected many local citizens of Lincoln to rigorous, hostile and often defaming questioning by both the defense and the prosecution. No one, regardless of age, gender or social status was protected from the humiliating public questioning. In the end, Dora was left portrayed as fifteen year old trollop. Her sister, Vivian, was exposed as an adulteress. Even Adolphus had the cloud of suspicion cast over him with his medical knowledge, tools and medicines so handy. Of course, the press of the times, always eager for sensationalism that sold issues of their papers, saw to it that every minute juicy detail of the case was broadcast far and wide. The Boston Globe latched onto the "human interest" story like a hound on a fresh rabbit trail, following every twist and turn of the trial from discovery of the body to the sentencing of the guilty party. Although Davis was initially charged with four counts, one of them murder, he was found guilty on only one, and that was providing the means by which Dora died. For that, he was sentenced to four years in prison on March 3, 1898.
After the trial, A. J. continued to live in Lincoln and administered to the medical needs of the community on into his late sixties. In 1900, he and Ella celebrated twenty-eight years of married life together. Their nuclear family consisted then of themselves, their thirty-two year old son, Arthur Enos, one remaining daughter, Agnes and Enos P. Hoag, Adolphus' father-in-law by his marriage to his first wife, Amelia. The eighty-four year old gentleman still declared himself a farmer by trade although the farm had long ago disappeared. Considering all of the tragic events that had transpired in A. J.'s lifetime, you would have hoped his later years would have been his "golden" ones. But he had a few more challenges to overcome before he reached the gentle slope of retirement and the ease of old age. On February 28, 1898, a month before the trial for the "murder" of his daughter, Dora, was completed, he lost his sister Mary Ann (1830-1898). June 12, 1902 A. J. lost his youngest daughter, Agnes E. when she was only twelve from "inflammatory rheumatism with heart complications". Two years later, February 20, 1904 Ella, his wife of thirty-two years died. She was still a young woman of forty-nine, but she could not win her battle with cancer of the bone in her right hip (osteo sarcoma). She had been very ill the last eighteen months of her life having undergone three separate surgeries in an attempt to rid herself of the insidious disease. It was a blessing when she passed away that Saturday afternoon in February. Her slow and agonizing suffering must have been a very bitter pill for her doctor husband to swallow. Ella was the fifth female in his family to die prematurely. Altogether, the physician, who had spent the majority of his adult life practicing medicine and the art of healing others, could do nothing to save the lives of six members of his own family.
And perhaps, his last loss was the straw that broke the camel's back for him. By 1910, A. J. had given up medicine and returned to cultivating the land. He listed himself as "general farmer" in the 1910 Federal Census. He lived alone on the farm located on Varney Road in Lincoln. Since he had no family to support, and his home and the lands on it were all paid for, he did not have to work very hard any more to provide for his needs. About a year before his own death, A. J. left Lincoln to go live with his daughter, Vivian, in Rutland. The reason for his removal from the town he was born and spent his entire life living in was not clear. He probably became to ill and/or feeble to live alone during his last year of life. He was eighty-four and he had lost three brothers in three years -- one a year in 1915, 1916 and 1917. This life was getting to be a lonely place for him. His death certificate did say that he died of "organic heart disease" on December 23, 1918. And the medical attendant did note that his heart problems had been going on for the last two or three years of his life.
1. www.newspapers.com, Middlebury Register, Jan. 2, 1919; www.ancestry.com, various family trees for Adolphus J. Cushman; www.findagrave.com, Memorial #31222130; www.ancestry.com, Death Records for Adolphus Cushman; History of Addison County, ed. By H.P. Smith, D. Mason & Co., Syracuse, N.Y., 1886, p.xv. 2. www.ancestry.com, 1850 U.S. Federal Census for Addolph (sic) Cushman.
3. Ibid., PAF Our Cousins Family Tree for Francis Xavier Courchene.
5. History of Addison County, ed. By H.P. Smith, D. Mason & Co., Syracuse, N.Y., 1886, p.xv.
6. www.ancestry.com, 1850 U.S. Federal Census for Addolph Cushman.
7. www.fold3.com, Compiled Service Records Of Union Soldiers Who Served in Organizations From the State of Vermont, image 311611318. Hereinafter referred to as Compiled Service Record.
8. Ibid., Compiled Service Record, image 311584538.
9. Ibid., Compiled Service Record for Elijah L. Cushman, image 311584620.
10. www.ancestry.com, Vermont, Vital Records, Marriage, Cushman, Adolphus J.
11. www.ancestry.com, Cousins By The Dozens Family Tree for Enos Hoag; Ibid., 1850 U.S. Federal Census for Enos P. Hoage (sic); Ibid., U.S., appointments of U.S. Postmasters, 1832-1971 for Enos P. Hoag; Ibid., 1860 U.S. Federal Census for Amos P. Houy (sic).
12. Ibid., 1870 U.S. Federal Census for Adolphus Cushman; Ibid., Vermont, Vital Records, Death for Minnie Cushman.
13. Ibid., Best Kilbourn Family Tree for Adolphus J. Cushman; Ibid., Death Record for Arthur Enos Cushman.
14. Ibid., Best Kilbourn Family Tree for Adolphus J. Cushman.
15. www.findagrave.com, Memorial #31242372 for Amelia R. Hood (sic) Cushman.
16. www.ancestry.com, Marriage Record for Cushman, Adolphus J.
17. Ibid., Marriage Record for Cushman, Adolphus J. and Birchard, Ella L.
18. Ibid., Best Kilbourn Family Tree for Adolphus J. Cushman; www.newspapers.com, Burlington Free Press, Aug. 8, 1963.
19. www.findagrave.com, Memorial #31242407 for Minnie M. Cushman.
20. www.ancestry.com, Birth of Cushman, Vivian.
21. History of Addison County Vermont, H.P. Smith, ed., D. Mason & Co., Syracuse, N.Y., 1886.
22. www.ancestry.com, Best Kilbourn Family Tree for Adolphus J. Cushman.
24. Ibid., Death for Cushman, Adolphus.
25. Ibid., 1890 Special Veterans Schedule for Adolphus J. Cushman.
26. www.fold3.com, Compiled Service Record Of Union Soldiers Who Served In Organizations From The State of Vermont, General Index To Pension Files for Cushman, Adolphus J.
27. www.newspapers.com, The Boston Globe, Tues., Aug. 17, 1897.
28. Ibid., Boston Globe, Wed., Aug. 18, 1897.
29. Ibid., Burlington Free Press, Sat., Sep. 11, 1897.
30. Ibid., Boston Globe, Thur., Aug 16, 1897; Ibid., The Bethel Courier, Thu., Aug. 26, 1897.
31. Ibid., The Burlington Free Press, Sat., Sep. 11, 1897.
32. Ibid., Boston Globe, Fri., Mar. 4, 1898.
33. www.ancestry.com, 1900 U.S. Federal Census for Adolphus J. Cushman.
34. Ibid., Best Kilbourn Family Tree for Adolphus J. Cushman; Ibid., Death Record for Cushman, Agnes.
35. www.newspapers.com, Bristol Herald, Thu., Feb. 25, 1904 for Ella (Stone) Cushman.
36. www.ancestry.com, 1910 U.S. Federal Census for Adolphus J. Cushman.
37. Ibid., Death Records for Adolphus Cushman.
Courtesy of Bernie Noble.