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In addition to the soldiers, there were a variety of civilian occupations required to run a war, including civilian government employees, contract surgeons, nurses, State officials, sutlers, telegraph operators, members of the Christian Commission and Sanitary Commissions.
Since the early days of our nation, America has been a melting pot, a mixture of many ethnic groups; Vermont was no different. There was a high percentage of African American soldiers who served, vis-a-vis the total population. A significant number were born in Canada and Ireland.
Natives of at least Ceylon, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Greece, Mexico, Scotland, Siam, Sweden, and Wales are represented in the ranks as well. Those born in Ceylon and Siam were children of missionaries from Vermont, we assume some of the others may be as well.
We have identified 56 Chaplains who served, credited to Vermont (not including ministers who served with the Christian Commission).
We have identified 101 Assistant Surgeons and 75 Full Surgeons, respectively, who served, credited to Vermont (not including doctors who served with the United States Santiary Commission or at the behest of the Governor of Vermont on medical inspection teams).
The majority of Vermonters who "went south" moved to a Southern State before the war, some more than twenty years before. One was visiting relatives in Missouri when the war broke out, and apparently joined a local unit without really understanding the political implications. But there were at least seven who had joined Vermont units and were taken prisoner, or deserted, and either joined Confederate units or took an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy, and 15 Vermonters, unnamed, were seen in a Chicago prison camp.
Generals. Lots of them, including careere Army types, and volunteers.